Going a long way back in history, British railroad engineers were placing tracks through the Indus river valley when they found very old bricks that seemed to belong to an ancient civilization. The local people then told the engineers that ruins of Indus valley civilization were also made up of the same bricks! Gradually around 1,500 additional settlements were discovered and the existence of the famous archaeological sites Mohenjo Daro and Harappa was confirmed.
If you plan to spend vacations in Pakistan and want to enjoy history, do visit these places. Since these two were the main cities of the civilization, archaeologists excavated these sites thoroughly to find the ruins. The architecture of buildings and construction is very similar which helped archaeologists deduce that both cities were operated under one government. The same type of bricks were used in the construction of both cities of Indus valley civilization.
Mohenjo Daro is also known as the hill of the dead and was built somewhere around 2600 BCE. The archaeological ruins of Mohenjo Daro are so precious that the site was designated as one of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The ruins indicate the fact that people of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa used to live in brick houses, some of which consisted of three floors. Among the popular remains are the remains of fine jewelry which include stones from faraway places. Archaeologists deduced using these ruins that people of the Indus valley civilization attached importance to art and crafts and also traded them with other areas.
Some ruins also suggested that people of Harappa were peace loving individuals as there was no signs of major military activity. However, it seems like they used knives made up of copper and bronze, arrowheads and spears. Cities were fortified to an extent which suggests that they might have been threatened by some group. Another important thing that archaeologists discovered through excavations and discovery of ruins is that the locals used to bury the dead. Also, some were buried wearing rings, anklets, necklace, earring and bangles. Not only this, items like shell spoons, antimony rods and copper mirrors were also found inside the graves.
From among thousands of things found in the Indus Valley are the clay tablets, indicating the fact that the writing system of locals was extremely old. The writing could never be recognized or translated by anyone so a lot of things like their religious beliefs and social structure of society remain unknown. Some evidence also suggests that the locals practiced shepherding and goat herding. Other ruins that excavators found include toys, musical instruments and pottery. Also, the evidence of medicines, soap and combs suggest that people of Indus valley were concerned about cleanliness and hygiene.
Despite thousands of excavated ruins and evidences, the actual reason behind the destruction of this civilization remains a mystery. Although the beauty of Hunza, Fairy Meadows, Swat and Lake Saiful Malook are worth witnessing, but you should visit Harappa and Mohenjo Daro at least once to unveil the lifestyle of the people of the past.
Book a tour online with Tripkar to explore the ruins and mystery of Indus Valley civilization!